Posts tagged 20:2:45
When “SANE” and Trafficking Meet

This presentation will provide detailed information of how the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) is able to help a victim of trafficking. The presenter will explore how the patient benefits from an exam completed by a trained SANE as well as medical treatment options for patients. This presentation will conclude with suggestions on how to provide care for this difficult population. Several case studies will be examined of patients that were seen and treated by trained SANEs.

Presentation Objectives:

·  Explore how a SANE can help a trafficking patient.

·  Examine case studies of potential human trafficking patients who were treated by a SANE.

·  Pinpoint how human trafficking patients can benefit from exams completed by a SANE.

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Paying for Sex while Traveling as Tourists: The Experience of Israeli Men

This presentation deals with the experiences of men who have paid for sex while traveling as tourists overseas. The findings are based on a qualitative study by co-researchers Einat Peled and Ayelet Prior that explored the experiences of 15 Israeli men, based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with them. Findings focus on three major aspects of the participants’ experiences: the meaning of sex for them and their reasons for wanting to pay for it; the problems involved in paying for sex; and, paying for sex while traveling abroad as a preferable option to paying for sex in Israel. The participants spoke extensively about the meaning of sex in their lives. Four related perceptions they presented were of sex as a natural and basic need, as key to normative male identity, as related to intimacy, and as a form of social recreation. Most of the interviewees noted that they chose to pay for sex in the absence of any other option, and described the difficulties associated with doing so, which diminished their enjoyment of it. Conversely, they regarded paid sex while traveling abroad as successful and satisfactory. The participants described paying for sex overseas as being quite different and advantageous to doing so in Israel, and therefore much preferable. In their view, paying for sex overseas was “not really prostitution,” was normative, made them feel more positive, and was commercially more gratifying. The discussion of these findings will offer sociological and psychoanalytic inter-subjective explanations for the men’s preference to pay for sex as tourists overseas.

Presentation Objectives:

·  Illustrate the meaning of sex and of paying for sex for the studied men.

·  Describe the experiences of men who have paid for sex while traveling as tourists overseas.

·  Communicate understanding of their preference to pay for sex abroad rather than in their home country.

·  Discuss the implications of the research findings for social intervention with men who pay for sex.

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Predictors of Mental Health of Female Survivors of Sex-Trafficking

Mental health problems associated with sex-trafficking appear to be enduring, with studies reporting a high prevalence of diagnosed disorder 6 months post-trafficking, and a slower decline in symptoms of physical health problems. We explored the association between traumatic events, psychological characteristics and mental health among 78 girls and women trafficked for sexual exploitation who were rescued and have been in contact with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) post-trafficking services. Multivariate logistic regression models based on screening data were fitted for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety separately, and adjusted for psychological characteristics to explore the pathways through which trafficking impacts mental health to inform interventions to promote recovery. Psychological typology of female survivors of sex-trafficking was portraited based on the existing systems of attitudes and values in communication and interpersonal interaction between the women and their family, friends and peers, and reported to be predictive of various cognitive, emotional and socio-psychological characteristics. The total index of mental distress, as indicated by a composite score of PTSD, depression and anxiety, was suggested to be less associated with the previously acquired psychological resources for coping with sexual slavery, and more determined by the severity of trafficking-related trauma exposures.

Presentation Objectives:

·  Describe risk factors for mental health of female survivors of sex-trafficking.

·  Exhibit psychological portraits of the survivors.

·  Identify psychological resources for coping with sexual slavery.

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Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation (SEA) in the Workplace

NetClean, a company offering software that blocks and reports child sexual exploitation (SEA) on electronic networks, has established how frequently this crime occurs in workplace (Borgström, 2017). My research, in particular within higher education, has documented similar results (McKenzie, 2018). Institutions must take responsibility for monitoring their electronic infrastructures—as much a part of the workplace environment as the lunch room. No institution should allow the criminal activity of child sexual exploitation to occur within the workplace. This session provides case studies from law enforcement, the medical community, higher education, US government employees and the humanitarian sector on child sexual abuse and exploitation in the workplace.

Presentation Objectives:

·  Examine how pervasive child sexual abuse and exploitation (via the trade in images, videos and live-streaming) appears to be in the workplace.

·  Discuss how predators use their professional positions of power over vulnerable children to commit sexual abuse and exploitation crimes.

·  Propose ways for workplaces to take active measures, such as installing NetClean software and inviting law enforcement to perform clean-sweeps, to prevent child trafficking/sexual abuse in the workplace.

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Expecting Acceptance: Group Autoethnographic Reflections of What is Reasonable

The Fearless Writers is a creative writing and autoethnography group developed as a community classroom alternative and participatory action research pilot. The panel members met weekly for one academic year to discuss social separation and autoethnography method. This group was the result of collaboration between high school juniors of Rogers High School’s AVID program and interprofessional students from the University of Toledo, mainly the social work program and the medical school. These discussions inspired weekly writing prompts about careful observation, the limitations of observation, what divides us from other people and what connects us with other people. The group engaged in regular strengths-based feedback about observations and writing. Group members were free to be as creative as possible in their writing using Amherst Writers and Artists method. From initial writing, the group shared concerns about expectations and acceptance. Research group members will be reading excerpts of their writing and what the group learned from writing and sharing regularly about subtle acts of marginalization that contribute to larger policy practices of social separation. This research group also contributed to the exhibit Shining Light: Monsters, Mysteries, and How Society Divides Us being displayed at this 15th International Human Trafficking & Social Justice Conference.

Presentation Objectives:

·  Describe how communities can honor and respect the insights of young people.

·  Identify the impact of social separation in the United States and how it contributes to health disparities.

·  Demonstrate the power of creative writing, art, and photography to raising awareness about injustice.

·  Counter stereotypes about youth and understand how disrupting stereotypes is crucial in erasing implicit bias.

·  Inspire future research involving youth and interprofessional students that encourages connection and better understanding of differences.

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Minnesota’s Response to Youth Victims of Labor Trafficking

Labor trafficking occurs throughout the Midwest, and many agencies and organizations have been increasing their understanding and responses to this violent crime and human rights violation. In spring 2018, The Advocates for Human Rights and the Minnesota Department of Health published a protocol on how to identify and respond to youth victims of labor trafficking. The protocol covers many of the sectors that interact with victims of labor trafficking –law enforcement, child protection, legal services, victim advocates, health care providers, and more. This presentation will describe labor trafficking (i.e., definitions, dynamics, risk factors, and identification), examine Minnesota’s response to labor trafficking as a model for other states, introduce participants to best practices in working with victims through interactive case studies, and discuss ways that participants can improve multi-jurisdictional responses to labor trafficking.

Presentation Objectives:

·  Examine the dynamics of labor trafficking and how to identify potential victims.

·  Discuss what Minnesota is doing to respond to labor trafficking.

·  Utilize the protocol for recommendations on identifying and responding to youth victims of labor trafficking as guidance for improving the response of the participant’s agency or organization.

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Gender Bias in Anti-Human Trafficking Policy

Almost 20 years ago, the passing of the United Nations (UN) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children helped push the issue of human trafficking to the forefront of legislation intended to protect and support victims (UN, 2000). Over 150 countries or states are associated with the Palermo Protocol and various groups have a variety of anti-trafficking initiatives that have followed this policy (UNODC, 2016). However, a major issue with many policies lies within the incorporated language being directed toward helping females and children specifically within sex trafficking, while excluding male victims. Human trafficking continues to be conceptualized as a women’s issue, even though many of the same vulnerabilities for trafficking have been identified for both men and women, including a history of abuse and substance use (Reid, 2012). The trafficking of males is often underrepresented and underreported due to the hidden visibility of forced servitude along with cultural beliefs regarding male superiority. For intervention and rehabilitation purposes, this discrepancy drastically affects the resources available for men. The failure to update policy to reflect greater gender inclusivity inhibits recovery of thousands of male victims that also need support. This presentation will review national and international anti-human trafficking policies to specifically examine gender biased language and discuss research findings regarding this bias. Preliminary analysis of over ten anti-human trafficking policies conducted through content analysis revealed that out of 1,154 instances of pronoun usage, 70% used ambiguous terminology (i.e., “victim”, “person”), 18.3% used “she”, 9% used “she/he” and 2.6% used “he”. Recommendations for policy makers and communities will also be provided regarding how to identify and address this lack of diversity within anti-human trafficking policy.

Presentation Objectives:

·  Examine patterns and trends related to gender biased language in anti-human trafficking policies.

·  Identify challenges associated with recognizing and assisting trafficking victims who are not female (i.e., male, transgender youth).

·  Discuss implications for more gender inclusive language in policy reformation.

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Complex Trauma in Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking Victims and the Dangers of Misidenfication

Domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) victims face many barriers to getting appropriate trauma-informed treatment. DMST victims frequently have a history of early childhood trauma by trusted adults. Due to the complex trauma these victims experience, they become dissociated as a tool for survival. As a result of ongoing trauma, many DMST victims do not embody (intuitively display) protective skills. Helping professionals often misunderstand the presentation of trauma, misidentify dissociation as apathy or defiance, and place DMST victims into inadequate treatment. The Federal Advisory Committee of Juvenile Justice (2007) found that children who are sex trafficked are some of the most vulnerable youth; to hold these children accountable for sexual actions with adult perpetrators will only further exploit their vulnerabilities. Through experience as a Licensed Clinical Social Worker working with both adult and child victims of human trafficking at a non-profit agency in New Jersey and supported by research as a doctoral student, this presentation will share information about how DMST victims embody complex trauma and how the presentation of that trauma, or seeming lack thereof, causes them to be misidentified as criminals rather than victims. Trauma-informed care needs to be integrated from the first interaction with law enforcement, throughout the development of a treatment plan with providers, and for the duration of the therapeutic relationship. This presentation will illustrate how helping professionals can effectively advocate for DMST victims at the early stages of identification and also foster a safe, accepting therapeutic space to assist these clients in trust building and identify formation.

Presentation Objectives:

·  Inform social workers and other first responders how to distinguish dissociation and other consequences of trauma from defiance.

·  Discuss the rights of DMST victims.

·  Advocate for proper identification across systems (i.e. law enforcement, child protection, judicial system).

·  Provide options for treatment available.

·  Present new ideas for specialized trauma-informed intervention when working with this population.

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